SUBMITTED BY           


                                                                        “RAIN DROPS”


                                                                                   ARUNIMA K E


                                                                                   ABHIJITH R


                                                                                   RUBIYA .N

IMK Senate House Campus, Palayam


For the hospitality industry, the waste created by daily operations is an ongoing challenge. In addition to incurring the costs of waste disposal, hotels need to also allocate valuable back-of-the house space for waste to be stored and sorted. There are other concerns as well, namely the health and safety of those coming into contact with the waste, and the noise created by waste compaction and collection.

Much of the waste created in hotels is generated from within the kitchen (organic food waste, packaging, aluminum cans, glass bottles, corks and cooking oils), or from the housekeeping department (cleaning materials and plastic packaging). Waste is not only created in guest rooms but also in public areas, hotel gardens (engine oils, pesticides, paints and preservatives to grass and hedge trimmings) and offices (toner cartridges, paper and cardboard waste). And refurbishment and renovation projects undertaken at the hotel contribute further to the waste generated by the property.

The waste management system in India is fairly unorganized. The waste management system in India staring with residential waste collection, industrial waste collection and commercial waste collection.

Residential waste collection is mostly done by the unorganized sector, using manual rickshaws. On an average one individual collects waste from about 300 houses and then loads this waste onto his rickshaw. The waste from house holds comprises of the following materials:        

    • Plastic
    • Paper
    • Cardboard
    • Iron scrap
    • Used copper wiring
    • Batteries
    • Mineral Waster bottles
    • Poly bags
    • Food scrap
    • Mud
    • Clay pots
    • Cigarette buds
    • Complex plastics

All this waste is collected in a mixed form from the house holds. The waste collector then takes this waste to a segregation site, or an open ground where he proceeds to remove the recyclables from the waste.  After sorting through the waste, the collector packs them in different sacks and reloads them onto his rickshaw. The organic waste and the inert waste are left behind as the waste collector has no use of this, and does not get any monetary benefit from it. After the collection and segregation process is complete, the collector paddles his rickshaw to his godown, where he proceeds to sell the waste to the godown owner or scrap dealer.

The process of collection, transportation, segregation and then transportation back to the godown takes about five – six hours in total, depending on the quantity of waste that the collector has to segregate.



There are a large number of Restaurants and Hotels in our city. These hotels contribute substantially to the generation of waste in a ward. As per the study of a few wards, hotel and restaurant waste contributes to around 25-30 % of the total waste generated by the ward.


Hotel waste comprises of two components:-

  • Biodegradable (Wet) waste
  • Non biodegradable (Dry) waste.

The wet waste comprises of food, vegetable and non vegetable waste whereas the dry waste comprises of plastic bottles, papers, plastic wrappers, HDPE, LLDPE bags etc.


At present Hotel waste generated by small restaurants is disposed off directly by the hotels at nearby collection spots. The substantial quantity of food waste dumped at these collection spots gets mixed with all the other kinds of dry and wet waste and gives an ugly look to the collection spots with lot of dirt and stink.

In case of large four and 5 star hotels, the hotel waste is disposed off directly by the hotels through corporation or through private contractors to the dumping ground. Corporation provides a service of directly lifting hotel waste from the small hotels in some wards. Corporation charges Trade Refuse Charge (TRC) to the hotels for the waste generated by the hotels. The TRC is charged in multiples of license fees which are directly based on the area of the hotel and the grade.  The grade one hotels are generally bars and permit rooms which do peak business during evening hours. The waste generated by the restaurants with bars and permit rooms is much less as compared to that generated by the food restaurants. However the TRC charged for the bars and restaurants is much higher than that charged for the ordinary restaurants which generate much more quantity of waste.

As per the observations of the hotel waste generated by hotels, around 70 to 75 % of the hotel waste is biodegradable and gets mixed with all the other type of waste when dumped at the collection spots. Also the waste which is collected directly by the corporation or private contractors gets mixed with all the other type of non biodegradable waste at the dumping ground.




      Any waste management strategy will take into account the hierarchy of waste management with a number of things that can be done before recycling. Also an occupational health study of waste workers would increase knowledge about the impact on health of working with biodegradable and non-biodegradable waste streams. The study could include identifying and assessing health concerns and causes of health effects, evaluating the adequacy of protective equipment, and comparing occupational risks from various professions.

  1. 1.    Management of waste generated by all the 3,4 and 5 star hotels and restaurants generating over one tonne of waste by themselves : These hotels can look at options of in-situ composting, installation of small biomethanation plants in the premises etc.
  1. 2.    Direct collection of waste generated by hotels by corporation and its localized disposal: Corporation should look at direct collection of hotel waste and set up zone wise processing facilities (either composting or biomethanation.).  This will substantially reduce the transport cost as well as the load on the dumping grounds. The public collection spots will also get less amount of garbage.
  1. 3.    Bio Sanitizer: This machine can crush the food waste to 1/3rd of the original volume and odorless compost produced can be used as manure after curing.
  1. 4.    Biomethanation: Biomethanation Plants of capacities 100 -500 kg per day can be installed in the premises of hotels if adequate space is available. Gas generated can be used for cooking.
  1. 5.    Composting/ Vermicomposting: Options of composting/vermicomposting could be explored.
  1. 6.     Recycling: Recycling is good for the environment because it significantly lowers the amount of waste going to landfill, and can reduce waste costs if fewer collections are needed for general waste. Recycling of glass, metal tins and aluminum cans.

Environmental Management


Kollam Corporations


Polluting the Environment






By Albatross:


Aswin Vijayan

Prasanth Sasidharan

Jiju Justin

IMK Senate House Campus






As per 1989 survey, India has the world’s largest population of livestock, with nearly 191 million cattle. 70 million Buffaloes, 139 million Sheep and Goat,10 million Pigs and over 200 million poultry. About 36.5% of Goat, 32.5% of Sheep, 28% of Pigs, 1.9% of Buffaloes and 0.9% cattle are slaughtered every year. The reported per capita availability of meat in India is about 1.4 kg per annum, which is rather low compared to 60-90 kg in European countries. As reported by the Ministry of Food Processing, as of 1989, a total of 3616 recognized slaughter houses slaughter over 2 million cattle and buffaloes, 50 million sheep and goat, 1.5 million pigs and 150 million poultry annually, for domestic consumption as well as for export purposes.


The slaughter houses come under the purview of the animal husbandry division of Ministry of Agriculture mainly for the purpose of funding towards expansion and modernization activities, the respective local bodies are mainly responsible for day-to-day operation/maintenance of the slaughter houses. Most of the slaughter houses in the country are service-oriented and, as such, perform only the killing and dressing of animals without an onsite rendering operations. Most of the slaughter houses are more than 50 years old without adequate basic amenities viz. proper flooring, ventilation, water supply, lair age, transport etc.





In addition to these deficiencies, slaughter houses suffer from very low hygiene standard posing a major public health and environmental hazards due to discrete disposal of waste and highly polluted effluent discharge. Unauthorized and illicit slaughtering has also increased manifold and thus the related problems.






The story isn’t different in the case of slaughter house of Kollam Corporation. Slaughter house of Kollam Corporation is situated in the banks of Ashtamudi Lake. The effluents & waste from the slaughter house is dumped in the nearby places & on to the lake, resulting in a polluted, unhygienic environment, that’s why our group took it as our third assignment of environmental management”
























With growing annual per capita meat consumption, high meat export potential, large non-utilization of potential meat animals, there is a rapid development of meat industry in India and also in Kerala. But neither the government nor the other firms where willing to use state of the art of technology available in global meat market.



The wastes from the slaughter house in Kollam, when dumped to the lake will pollute the lake and also result in harmful effects for the living organisms (fish, birds, humans, etc) which depends either directly or indirectly to the particular lake. The waste generated is almost wholly organic, chiefly having dissolved and suspended material.




The principal deleterious effect of these wastes on streams and water courses is their deoxygenating. The unattended waste also leads to polluted air and bad odour. The decaying wastes might become breeding places for bacteria’s and viruses which may result in many illnesses to both humans and other living organisms. Chances of epidemic are very high and the authorities responsible are not taking any action to manage the waste effectively.






During the operations of the slaughter house the waste generated is of liquid and solid nature



Solid Wastes


The solid wastes from slaughterhouses are varied depending on the kind and scale of operations. Usually the quantity of wastes per animal is large in small scale operations where the recovery of offal’s is ineffective. In simple operations animals are slaughtered and have a very limited amount of by-product processing. Its main products are fresh meat in the form of whole, half or quarter carcasses or in smaller meat cuts. While in modern complex slaughterhouse does extensive processing of by-products. In such plants at least three additional operations; rendering, paunch and viscera handling, blood processing, and hide and hair processing are taken place. By these operations maximum recovery of edible and inedible materials from the offal’s is done and that results less production of wastes.



The main wastes of small scale slaughterhouses in our country includes hides, skins, blood, rumen contents, bones, horns, hoofs, urinary bladder, gall bladder, uterus, rectum, udder, fetes, snout, ear, penis, meat trimmings, hide and skin trimmings, condemned meat, condemned carcass, esophagus, hair and poultry offal’s (feathers, head). Only few of these by-products can be used directly.

The data collected on the solid waste quantity generated in the bovine, goat, sheep and pig slaughter houses through a survey is shown in the following table 2




Average solid waste generation from bovine slaughter houses is 275 kg/tonne of live weight killed (TLWK) which is equivalent to 27.5 per cent of the animal weight. In case of goat and sheep slaughter house, average waste generation amounts to be 170 kg per TLWK which is 17 per cent of animal weight. Solid waste generation from pig slaughtering is 2.3 kg/head equivalent to 4 per cent of animal weight.


The solid waste of slaughter houses can be broadly classified into two categories i.e. vegetable matter such

as rumen, stomach and intestine contents, dung, agriculture residues, etc, and animal matter like inedible offal’s, tissues, meat trimmings, waste and condemned meat, bones etc. These waste streams can be segregated and treated separately.





Liquid Waste


Liquid waste in a slaughter house mainly consists of Blood from the animals, urine, and other such internal fluids along with the water that is used to wash the place.



Slaughter house waste contains mostly biodegradable matter. Characteristics of solid wastes from goat and sheep slaughtering are given in table 3.



Currently there is no organized system for the disposal of solid wastes in the slaughter house. The entire solid waste is collected and dumped in lakes or disposed of as land fill, dung and rumen digesta are collected separately for composting.







Management of Solid Waste


Since it’s a large slaughter house, the generated solid wastes, could be processed in environmentally acceptable manner. For the particular slaughter houses, Bio-methanation is suggested to manage the solid waste. Bio-methanation requires less space, which is advantageous for the slaughter house in Kollam which has land constraints. Biomethanation of slaughterhouse is done in many places. The success of the process, especially the effective removal BOD has led Biogas plant to be acceptable for slaughter house.


Biomethanation plant can be constructed in two ways. The gas is produced in one or more digesters and then it can be stored in a separate gas holder from where it is drawn as and when required. The other alternative is that the digester and gas holder are built so as to form one single unit. The gas is produced in the lower part of the structure, while the upper tank serves as a gas holder. While the second option is extremely simple and cheap in construction, but it has the disadvantage that gas production is affected during recharge. On the other hand, with a separate gas holder, continuous supply of gas can be assured even when one or more digesters are being charged. It is, therefore, more practicable for larger units to have separate gas holders.






Liquid Waste/Effluent


During the operations of the slaughter house the waste generated is of liquid and solid nature. The liquid waste should be washed away by safe potable and constant supply of fresh water at adequate pressure throughout the premises of slaughtering. The waste water from slaughter house is heavy in pollution and, therefore, it should not be allowed to mix with the municipal drain system without pre-treatment meeting sewage standards as per the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS).





The waste water treatment system should essentially comprise of:



  • Ø Self cleaning type screening or two stage screening (Bar type)


  • Ø Anaerobic treatment;


  • Ø Aerobic treatment; and


  • Ø Filter press for dewatering of the sludge.






Collection of Blood


The blood available from the slaughter house should be collected and made use of in pharmaceutical industry. Bleeding areas should be clearly identified in the slaughter house and blood drains should be and collection should be done immediately so that its full potential could be utilized.




Improved Method of Dressing


Adequate tools should be provided for dehiding of the animals, hides and skins should be immediately transported out of the slaughtering area in a closed wheel-barrow or similar other devices. In no case the hides and skins should be spread on the floor of the slaughtering area for inspection. Legs, bones, hooves etc. should also be removed immediately from the slaughtering area through a spring load floor chute or closed wheel-barrow.





At slaughter houses adequate compartments for immediate separation and disposal of condemned material must be provided. The authority must take care that intestines are not punctured during evisceration to avoid contamination of carcasses






Safe Disposal of Waste Products



Slaughtering of animals generates wastes consisting of non edible offal (like lungs, large intestines, various glands, animal tissues, organs, various body parts, etc.) stomach/intestinal contents, dung, sludge from waste water treatment, bones, etc. All these types of wastes are required to be disposed by adopting methods like rendering/controlled incineration/burial/composting/Anaerobic digestion etc.



Odours Control


The tropical climate of our state enhances the process of degeneration of any tissue material remaining as a waste in the premises of the slaughter houses. Therefore, the slaughter house premises always give a particular stink. In order to avoid this stinking odour proper ventilation of slaughtering halls, washing of the floors with non-poisonous disinfectants and if need be use of aerobic deodorants must be provided at each slaughter house.


Pest control


Pests (insect, rodents and birds) should be controlled to prevent their access to slaughterhouses, production areas and storage departments. This is best achieved by the construction of buildings and working places where access of insects, rodents and birds is hindered, but it will be almost impossible to secure buildings totally against pests. However good designs and constructions may delay the entry of pests which is a worthwhile objective of an overall rodent control program. Even if the buildings are well-constructed and as pest-proof as possible it will be necessary to have a regular pest control.


Modernisation of Slaughter House


The slaughter house is controlled by local bodies, which should follow the standards prescribed, but due to non-existence of modernised slaughter houses, environmental pollution arising out of the slaughtering activities cannot be controlled. The local bodies must, therefore, take up modernisation of the slaughter house in Kollam and achieve the pollution control norms.



Conclusion/ Summary


All most all by-product of slaughter house can be utilized. However, various circumstances do not always permit by-product recovery. The reasons may be inadequate quantity of materials, lack of markets, cost of processing etc. In such instances, they simply form part of waste lot for which different methods of processing and disposal have to be considered. For the slaughter house wastes composting, biomethanation and rendering systems are suggested.

Selection of appropriate method, however, depends mainly on type of wastes and its quantity. Incineration is also an option for treatment of slaughter house waste. An appropriate selection of the above mentioned method will lead to a cleaner, healthier, environment for the residence of the Kollam Corporation.










                                                                       Submitted by: group Nimbus

                                                                      Aneeshma, Sruthi, Sreejit

IMK Senate House Campus, Palayam


The hair-saloon is situated in Katampazhipuram, a village which is 30 Km from Palakkad. Salim, the proprietor of the shop took the ownership of the shop from his father. He is doing a good business there as he is a local guy and a nearby tea shop makes the place a meeting ground for villagers.

According to him, average numbers of customers visiting his shop in week days are in around 8-10 and around 18-22 in holidays.

There is a small garden in front of the two shops and the waste water from both the shops is channelled to it. Thus the waste water from the shop is efficiently managed. But the waste hair is dumped in the back side of the shop which get decompose there. This waste hair may get carried away by wind and may cause problem to neighbouring peoples.

An article published in HortTechnology titled “From Salon to Salad: Human Hair Makes Good Plant Fertilizer” discusses that human hair can be used instead of chemical fertilizers for some plants like lettuce.

The hair provides nitrogen as it gets decomposed, just as natural gas derived sources like ammonia do. According to horticulturalist Vlatcho Zheljazkov of Mississippi State University, the yield by using the decomposed hair would be same as using chemical fertilizer. Since all plants need nitrogen to grow and human hair contains 15 per cent nitrogen, thus it can be used as fertilizer. Currently synthetic fertilizer using ammonia from the Haber-Bosch process is used widely but consumes lot of energy for its production.

The study shows that both lettuce and wormwood, the psychoactive ingredient in absinthe, grow about as well with hair as a fertilizer as they do with chemical fertilizers. The plants seem to be able to use about 50 per cent of the nitrogen contained in the hair. The only problem is that hair takes a little time to decompose and release the nutrients to the soil, but can be used with fast acting fertilizers for faster results.

He can use the waste hair which is dumped behind his shop as fertilizers for the garden. Thus he can effectively use the human hair in an environment friendly manner.

Now there are companies and non-profit organisation selling and using human hair mats for gardening and cleaning up of oil spills.

Hair mats are wonderful for gardeners, offering environmentally friendly benefits. The mats slow down evaporation, so gardeners can reduce their water use to half the amount they would use without the mats. The hair naturally keeps weeds down, so there is no need for herbicides in the garden. Fertilizer isn’t necessary either because hair naturally releases nitrogen, which promotes growth in plants. Not only is it good for the environment, but hair also costs gardeners less money.

Hair soaks up oil, so using hair mats in areas where there have been oil spills really helps clean up the mess. Shorelines can be cleaned up using these hair mats. Imagine how oily your hair gets after not washing it for a couple of days—it basically soaks up and absorbs oil, and the oil won’t come out until you wash it with shampoo. This means that you can use hair mats in bodies of water to soak up the oil. This is beneficial for the environment, cleaning up the harmful oil, but also helps water animals and plants who are affected by oil spills.

Thus a natural resource like hair can be used effectively and in environmental friendly manner.








Divya CM

Divya Sudarsanan

Ratheesh Krishnan

Volga R

IMK SEnate House CAmpus


  1. 1.       INTRODUCTION

Stone Crushing Industry is an important industrial sector in the country engaged in producing crushed stone of various sizes depending upon the requirement which acts as raw material for various construction activities such as construction of Roads, Highways, Bridges, Buildings, Canals etc. It is estimated that there are over 12,000 stone crusher units in India. The number is expected to grow further keeping in view the future plans for development of infrastructure of roads, canals and buildings that are required for overall development of the country. In India, the Stone Crushing Industry sector is estimated to have an annual turnover of Rs. 5000 crore (equivalent to over US$ 1 billion) and is therefore an economically important sector. The sector is estimated to be providing direct employment to over 500,000 people engaged in various activities such as mining, crushing plant, transportation of mined stones and crushed products etc. Most of these personnel are from rural and economically backward areas where employment opportunities are limited and therefore it carries greater significance in terms of social importance in rural areas. It is a source of earning for uneducated poor unskilled rural people.

The stone crusher is one such industry that exists in the vicinity of almost all major cities/towns throughout the country in all the states because the construction activities go on throughout the country. As transportation of stone over long distances adds to cost of the crushed stone products, the crushers need to be necessarily located nearer to the demand centers such as Cities, Bridges, Canals etc. Stone Crushers also need electricity supply and large number of man power for its operation. It also needs access roads for the movement of mined stone as well as crushed stone products. It is for these reason that most Stone Crushers are located along the periphery of Cities or in the vicinity of major construction projects. In most cases the Stone Crushers come up in clusters of number of units ranging from five to fifty in one cluster. The crushers are located nearer to the source of raw material such as Stone mines, River Beds etc.

These stone crushers though socio-economically an important sector, gives rise to substantial quantity of fine fugitive dust emissions which create health hazards to the workers as well as surrounding population by way of causing respiratory diseases. The dust also adversely affects visibility, reduces growth of vegetation and hampers aesthetics of the area. In order to prevent/control these emissions, CPCB has already evolved Emission Standards and guidelines in 1989, which has been notified under Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 by Ministry of Environment & Forests vide Notification No. G.S.R. 742(E) dated 30th August 1990 & S.O. 8(E) dated December 31, 1990 based on techno-economic feasibility to achieve the standards. But over the years, as the need for more effective control and enforcement has been felt and to provide more specific guidelines to the stone crushers to enable them control emissions satisfactorily, CPCB has signed a Memorandum of Undertaking (MoU) with National Productivity Council (NPC) and commissioned the study with the work of reviewing the existing standards, guidelines and sitiing criteria and to evolve a Comprehensive Industry Document (COINDS) for Stone Crushers. This report is an outcome of the in-depth studies carried out by NPC jointly with CPCB on a representatives cross section of Stone Crushers throughout the country and a series of meeting held with State Pollution Control Boards, Stone Crushers Associations / Stone Crushers unit representatives etc..

  1. 2.       Typical Set-up & Sizes of Stone Crushers

There are large variations in the types of stone crusher setup across the country depending on geographical locations, type of demand for crushed products, closeness to urban areas, type of raw


material, availability of plant and machinery locally etc. Primarily the stone crusher industry sector could be divided in three categories small, medium & large.


2.1   Small Size Stone Crushers

There are different types of small crushers in various states with a production capacity ranging from 3 to 25 TPH. Typically, the units having only one Jaw type crusher used as primary or secondary crusher along with one or maximum 2 screens are grouped as small stone crushers. A few most representative types of small crushers are:

  • Crushers with completely manual breaking/feeding/ retrieving/stocking operation with single jaw and single rotary screen.
  • Crushers with manual breaking manual/gravity feeding belt conveyors single jaw & rotary screen type.
  • Mechanical/Gravity feeding, single jaw with vibratory type screens with belt conveyors.
  • Single Jaw Bucket Elevator, Elevated vibratory screen with storage bunkers type compact units.

2.2   Medium Size Crushers


Typically those crushers having than one crusher i.e., one primary and one secondary or one/two primary & two secondary crushers along with one or more vibratory screens are categorized as medium size crushers. The mined stones are transported mostly by trucks/dumpers and unloaded in to elevated stone wells. The stones are fed by gravity to primary crushers. The Crushed stones are conveyed to vibratory screens. The screened products of various sizes are conveyed to stock piles by belt conveyors. The oversize is returned to secondary crushers for further crushing and back to the vibratory screen. Such type of medium type crushers has a production capacity in the range of 25 – 100 TPH.

2.3   Large Stone Crushers

Those crushers typically having two or more numbers each of primary, secondary & tertiary type crushers with at least 2 or more vibratory screens with mechanized loading, unloading conveying operation s and producing more than 100 TPH crushed stones are categorized as large crushers. Typically large stone crusher are owned by bigger construction companies like L&T, Dodsal Construction, etc who have their own large construction projects demand. Such crushers have a capacity range of 100 –200 TPH. These type of crusher generally have their own/leased open-cast stone mines and a fleet of mechanical mining equipment , trucks and dumpers, loaders etc. These crushers involve high capital investment and mostly operate round the clock. All conveying operations are done through proper belt conveyors.




3.1   Sources of Emissions

All quarrying and stone processing operations including surface mining, crushing, screening, material handling and transfer operations are potential sources of particulate emissions. These sources may be categorised as either process sources or fugitive dust sources. Process sources include those sources for which emissions are amenable to capture and subsequent control. Fugitive dust sources generally involve the re-entrainment or settled dust by wind or machine movement. Factors effecting emissions from either source category include the type, quantity and the moisture content of the rock processed, the type of equipment and operating practices employed as well as topographical and climatic factors.

The typical emission sources during stone processing are given in the table below.

Activity Process Fugitive Dust Source
Mining Drilling Blasting, Loading and Hauling.
Transportation N/A Haul Road
Stone Crushing CrushingScreeningConveyor transfer points Stock pilesConveying

Emission during Mining Activity

Fugitive Emissions are generated during various mining activities such as drilling, blasting, excavation, breaking and loading etc. In some bigger mines the primary blasting emissions are quite substantial over a large area. The emissions during secondary blasting are also substantial but lesser compared to primary blasting. These emissions last only for a few minutes. There is hardly any controls adopted world over for controlling blasting emissions.


Emission during Transportation

During transportation of mined stones by heavy vehicles like trailers, trucks, dumpers, fugitive dust emission occur due to movement of heavy vehicles on earthen roads. The quantity of emissions depends on various aspects like climatic conditions, moisture in the soil, speed of the vehicle, frequency of the vehicles etc. Generally such emissions can be controlled to a great extent by spraying water on these roads intermittently.


Emission during Crushing Operation

During crushing operation, generation of particulate emissions is inherent and the emissions are most apparent at crusher feed and discharge points. The greater the reduction in size during subsequent crushing stages from primary, secondary to tertiary crushing, the higher the emissions. Primary jaw crushers produce more dust than comparable gyratory crushers because of the bellows effect of jaw and because gyratory crushers are usually choke-fed, thus minimising the open spaces from which dust may be emitted. For subsequent reduction stages, cone or roller type crushers produce more fines as a result of attrition and consequently generate more dust.


Emissions During screening

In the screening section, the mixture of stones is classified and separated according to size. Generally the screening efficiency is considered to be in the range of 60 to 75%. The screening equipments commonly used include grizzlies, shaking screens, vibrating screens and revolving screens. Although screening may be performed wet or dry, dry screening is the most common. Dust is emitted from screening operations as a result of the agitation of dry stone. The screening of fines produces higher emissions than the screening of coarse sizes. Also screens agitated at large amplitudes and high frequency emit more dust than those operated at small amplitudes and low frequencies.



Emissions During material handling

In the material handling section, various handling devices like feeders, belt conveyors, bucket elevators and screw conveyors are used to transport crushed materials from one point to another. Particulates may be emitted from any of the material handling operations. Most of the emissions occur at transfer points. Since transport of material on the conveyor causes little disturbance of air and emissions that occur due to the wind are judged to be minimum. The transfer points include transfers from a conveyor on to another, into a hopper and on to a storage pile. The amount of uncontrolled emissions depends on the size distribution of the material handled, the belt speed and the free fall distance.

3.2   Nature and Spread of Emissions

The dust is generated primarily due to size reduction and handling of the stones at various stages. The major source of dust generation is during size reduction in the primary, secondary & tertiary crushers. The fines in the dust generated increases with subsequent stages of crushing i.e., more fines are generated in secondary crusher as compared to primary crusher. The dust is also generated during handling of stones, especially at the point where the stones fall through a height from places like one belt to another or from belt to hopper or stock piles etc. During vibratory screen large quantity of fine dust is emitted.

Coarser part of the dust settles down within the premises but the finer particles get air borne and get carried away with wind to longer distances. The actual area of the source of the dust generation is quite small (about 0.5 to 1 square meter)at each source, but as the dust rises it spreads and typically the area in which it spreads is more than 10 –15 times larger than the area of actual emissions at about 3 to 4 metres height. This rising dust column shifts from left to right or north to south etc. depending on wind direction and current and eventually it gives an appearance that the dust is emitted from almost every inch of area in the stone crusher.

3.3   Factors that Influence Emissions

Factors affecting emissions that are common to most operations include moisture content in the rock, type of rock processed, type of equipment, and operating practices employed. These factors apply to both process (primary) sources and fugitive (secondary) sources in quarry and plant operations.

Depending on geographic and climatic conditions, the inherent moisture content or wetness of quarried rock may range from nearly zero percent to several percent. The effect of moisture content is especially important during quarrying, material handling, and initial plant operations such as primary crushing. Surface wetness causes fine particles to agglomerate or adhere to the faces of larger stones, resulting in a dust suppression effect. However, as new fine particles are created by crushing and attrition and since moisture content is reduced by evaporation, this suppressive effect diminishes in later stages.

The type of rock processed is also important. Soft rock produces a higher percentage of fines than do hard rocks because they are more friable. Therefore, processing of soft rocks has greater potential for emissions.

The type of equipment and operating practices employed also affect uncontrolled emissions. Equipment selection is based on a variety of parameters, including quarry characteristics; rock type


processed, and desired end products. Emissions from process equipment such as crushers, screens and conveyors are generally a function of the size distribution of the material, and the amount of mechanically induced velocity imparted to it.

3.4   Environmental, Health and Safety Problems due to Emissions

Some percentage of the fugitive dust emissions may get settled down within the unit premises it self, but a substantial percentage of airborne emissions are carried away to the surroundings by wind currents. Dust that settles within the plant gets air borne again due to vehicular movement or by wind and acts as a secondary emission source. Dust settled over the equipments may cause rapid wear and tear of the rotating parts and may lead to frequent breakdowns and higher maintenance costs.

Dust emissions affect the climate, damage the material, human health and vegetation. When the total amount of particulates in the atmosphere increases, particulates may absorb incoming solar radiation, causing an increase in the atmospheric and land surface temperature. With the deposition of aerosols on materials, especially buildings, although little damage is caused to the materials, the effect is expensive to remove deposited particulates which damages vegetation by preventing them from photo synthesis. The physical properties of atmospheric particulates affect human health either by allowing penetration of the lung and causing irritation to the internal membrane, or by transporting absorbed toxic gases and vapors deeper into the lung than they would normally travel. The work place environment at stone crusher sites contain millions of suspended mineral particles of respirable size that get deposited in lungs following inhalation.

3.5   Noise Pollution Problems

There are a number of sources from which high noise level are generated, some continuously and some intermittently. The vibratory screen is the most predominant source of continuous noise. Especially vibratory screens are operated at higher frequency and without enclosures can give rise to abnormally high noise levels. Intermittent noise level is also generated at the crusher during the time of the breaking of stones. Intermittent noise is also generated during un-loading and loading operations. Belt conveyor movement is also a source of continuous noise, especially the ill-maintained and cheaper end conveyor system make more noise.


  1. 4.       Emission reduction techniques adopted in crushers

Diverse particulate emission sources in stone processing operations have resulted in the use of a variety of control methods and techniques. Dust suppression techniques are the most commonly used. They are designed to prevent particulate matter from becoming air borne and are applicable to both process and fugitive dust sources. Particulate emissions such as those generated by crushing operations can be captured in collection systems. The applicable control options for various types of emission sources are listed in the table below:


  1. 1.       Control of Mining/ Quarrying Operations


i)                    Control of drilling operations

For controlling emissions during drilling operations, generally two methods are adopted, water injection and aspiration to control device. In water injection, water or water plus a wetting agent or surfactant, usually a liquid detergent is forced into the compressed air screen that flushes the drill cuttings from the hole and the moisture missed dampens the stone particles which causes them to agglomerate. In the dry collection system, a hood encircles the drill rod at the whole collar and vacuum capture emissions which are vented through flexible duct to a control device such as cyclones or fabric filters, at times preceded by a settling chamber. Air volumes required for effective control may range from 850 to 3400 m3/hr depending on the type of rock drilled, hole size and penetration rate.



ii)                  Control of blasting operations

During blasting operations, no effective method is available for controlling particulate emissions. Good blasting practices are generally employed to minimize noise, vibration and air shock and the blasting operations are scheduled to occur only during conditions of no wind and no inversion potential so as to reduce the impact of emissions substantially.


iii)                Control of quarry loading operations

The particulate emissions from the loading operations are controlled by using water trucks equipped with hoses or portable watering systems to wet down the piles prior to loading.


iv)                Control of hauling operations

The emissions from hauling operations are proportionate to the condition of the road surface and the volume and speed of vehicular traffic. The control measures include methods to improve road surfaces or suppress dust and operational changes to minimise the effect of vehicular traffic. The various treatment methods applied to control fugitive emissions from haul roads include watering, surface treatment with chemical dust suppression, soil stabilisation and paving. The road dust is also controlled commonly by treatment with oil usually supplemented by watering. Waste oils such as crankcase drainings are spread over roadways at a rate of about 0.23 liters/m2 of roadways, but such oil treatment is used judiciously to avoid slippery and dangerous conditions due to excessive application. Other treatments such as application of hydroscopic chemicals such as organic sulphonates and calcium chloride spread directly over unpaved road surfaces are used where these chemicals dissolve in the moisture absorbed from the air and form a clear liquid i.e. resistant to evaporation. An alternative to surface treatment is soil stabilisation where water dilute emulsions of either synthetic or petroleum resins are used which act as adhesive or binder. Apart from the above measures, some operational measures such as reduction of traffic volume and control of traffic speed are taken to reduce emissions from the hauling roads.

  1. 2.       Control of plant operations (Crushing, Screening and Conveying)

The emissions from the plant operations contain a multiplicity of dust producing points including numerous crushers, screens, conveyor transfer points and storage facilities. Control methods generally applied to control plant generated emissions include wet dust suppression, dry collection and a combination of the two. Wet dust suppression consists of introducing moisture into the material flow to restrain fine particulate matter from becoming air borne. Dry collection involves hooding or enclosing dust producing points and exhausting emissions to a collection device. In combination systems, both methods are applied at different stages throughout the process. Completely enclosing process equipment is another very effective technique.

i)                    Wet dust suppression systems

Typically the wet dust suppression system contains basic components such as a dust control agent, proportioning equipment, a distribution system and control actuators. A pump is required to provide adequate pressure. Distribution is accomplished by spray headers fitted with pressure spray nozzles. The nozzle types used are hollow cone, solid cone or fan type depending on the spray pattern desired. Screen filters are used to prevent nozzle plugging.

Spray actuation and control are important to achieve effective control and to reduce waste and undesirable muddy conditions especially when the material flow is intermittent. Spray headers at each application point are normally equipped with an on – off controller i.e. interlocked with a sensing mechanism so that sprays will be operating only when material is flowing.

ii)                   Dry Collection Systems

Particulate emissions generated from crushers, screens, conveyor transfer points and bins are at times controlled by capturing and exhausting emissions to a collection device. Collection systems consist of hoods and enclosures to confine & capture emissions and ducting & fans to convey the captured emissions to a collection device where they are removed before the air stream is exhausted to the atmosphere. For the collection system to be effective in preventing emissions from being discharged to atmosphere, its hooding and ducting must be properly designed and balanced. Process equipment should be enclosed as completely as practicable, yet allow excess room for routine maintenance and inspection requirements. In general, a minimum in draft velocity of 1 m/s is maintained through all open hood areas. The conveying velocities range from 18 to 23 m/s.

The most commonly used dust collection device in the crushed stone industry is the fabric filter or bag house equipped with mechanical shaker type or pulse jet type cleaning mechanism and normally equipped with cotton sateen cloth bags. The air to cloth ratios generally employed range from 2:1 to 3:1 for mechanical shaker and higher ratios of 6:1 to 10:1 for pulse jet type bag filters are employed. Other collection devices such as cyclones and scrubbers are used for primarily controlling coarse particles of 20 micron or higher size in the past, but these devices are not used currently in the industry.

iii)                Combination Control Systems

The wet dust suppression and dry collection techniques are often used in combination to control particulate emissions from stone crushers. The wet suppression is generally used to control emissions at the primary crushing stage and at subsequent screens, transfer points and crusher feeds. The dry collection is generally used to control emissions from the remaining points such as secondary and tertiary crusher discharges where new dry stone surfaces and fine particulates are formed. A large portion of the fine particulates is removed by dry collection but subsequent dust suppression applications become more effective with the minimum of added moisture.

  1. 3.       Control of fugitive dust sources

Significant fugitive dust emissions, seen as visible emissions, result during formation of new aggregate piles and erosion of previously formed stock piles during which emissions are generated by wind blowing across the streams of falling stone and segregating fine particles from coarse particles. Emissions are also generated when the falling stone impacts on the piles. Control methods include wet dust suppression and devices designed to minimise the free fall distance to which the material is subjected, thus lessening its exposure to wind. Control devices include telescopic chutes, stone ladders and hinged boom stacker conveyors. Stone ladders consist of a section of vertical pipe into which stone from the stacking conveyor is discharged. Watering is the most commonly used technique for controlling wind blown emissions from active stockpiles. Locating stockpiles behind natural or artificial wind breaks (walls) also aids in reducing wind blown dust.

Fugitive dust emissions are also generated from conveying operations for which the dust control alternatives include chemical suppression and covering. Fugitive emissions are also generated during transfer of fine materials from stockpiles into open dump trucks. The dust formation may be reduced by keeping the stones wet on the stockpiles and the loaded buckets are emptied as close as possible to the truck beds. At some installations water spray systems are used to wet the stone in the truck while loading.

Fugitive dust emissions are also generated from the plant yard areas due to vehicular traffic and wind. These emissions generally are not controlled at crushed stone plants. It can be minimised through good house keeping practices. Street sweeping equipment has been effective for paved or other smooth yard surfaces.

4.5 Environmental Impacts Of Various Control Technologies

Application of emission reduction systems are associated with both beneficial and adverse impacts on air, water, solid waste, energy and noise that may be directly or indirectly attributed to the operation of these emission control systems.


Impact on Air

Impacts on air emissions associated with the application of the alternative emissions reduction systems for the control of particulate emissions from both process and fugitive dust sources are discussed here. Because emissions form fugitive dust sources are typically large in area and are discharged directly to the atmosphere in an unconstrained manner rather than through a stack, such a quantitative measurement of these emissions is considered to be difficult, if not impossible. Similarly because of the nature of wet dust suppression systems, no data are available that permit a quantitative comparison of the control capabilities of wet systems versus dry collection systems on process sources. Typically the uncontrolled emissions from 200 to 600 tons/hr. crushers range between 1000 to 3000 kg./hr which after reduction by over 99% in dry type collection systems such as bag filters reduce to as low as 3 to 6 kg/hr


Impact on Water Pollution

Dry collection control techniques generate no water effluent. When wet dust suppression techniques are used, the water is absorbed by the material processed and therefore, does not produce any water effluent either. The application of air pollution control technology in the stone crushers has little impact on water quality.


Impact on Solid Waste Disposal

The method of disposal of quarry, plant and dust collector waste materials depends somewhat upon state and local government and corporate policies. When dry type bag filter systems are used, the solid waste (dust) collected can be sold or used for a variety of purposes. Collected fines are sometimes disposed of in an isolated location in the quarry if no market is available which generally in the range of 0.5% of the total production. If such waste piles are properly controlled by any of the techniques discussed above, no subsequent air pollution problems develop. Thus, the solid waste generated by the application of dry collection methods can be dispersed without any adverse impact on the environment. When wet dust suppression is used, no solid waste disposal problem results over that produced by normal operation.

Impact on Energy Consumption

Application of the alternative control techniques in stone crushers necessarily results in an increase in energy consumption over that required to operate a plant without air pollution control. Typical energy consumption with various types of air pollution control technologies used in different capacity stone crushers is given in the table below.

The application of dry collection system results in the highest increase in energy usage. Typically for a 200 TPH plant, the increase in energy consumption with dry system is about 103 HP whereas in wet type suppression system, the increase is only 2 HP and in a combination of wet and dry system, the increase is about 23 HP. This shows the impact of increase in energy consumption by adopting wet dust suppression systems is negligible whereas it is substantial in the range of 16 to 17% when dry control systems are adopted.

Impact on Noise

Allowable noise levels and employee exposure times are specified by the mining enforcement and safety administration department. These limits require that potential noise problems be assessed and sound dampening equipment be installed as required. By application of either of the above air pollution control techniques, no significant noise impact is anticipated.

Review of Dust Containment Enclosures

The enclosures are commonly found for the crushing equipment’s and the vibratory screens. Some units have also provided enclosures to belt conveyors. The appropriateness of the type of enclosures provided is discussed below.

a)      Enclosures for Crushing & Screening Equipment’s and Constraints Reported

In some crushers the crushing equipment’s (primary or secondary) are enclosed inside a big shed. The shed is closed from 3 sides and top but leaving the front end completely open. This type of shed cannot stop wind currents carry the emission away from the crusher and therefore such enclosure does not serve any useful purpose unless enclosed from all sides. The constraints were reported in completely enclosing the shed such as during maintenance it is required to take out large components using cranes, loaders etc and this becomes difficult if the front access is closed. The general practice is to remove some sheets from the enclosure to create an opening to take out material during repairs. These removed sheets never get replaced again anticipating the occurrence of the similar problem again. This ultimately results into partial enclosures.

b)       Constraints in Enclosing Crusher/Screen Discharge Areas

At the discharge of screen and crushers some stones spill over from the belt conveyor and get accumulated on the floor. This spilled over material needs to be periodically removed or else the piled up material beyond the height of the system drive component may hamper the operation of the belt conveyors etc. Such spillages are so frequent and large in quantity that almost once in a day it needs to be cleaned. This spilled material also contains large quantity of stone dust. It is due to this reason, in order to provide easy access for removal of material, one side of the enclosure is generally left open or even if a door is installed it always remains in open condition.

Such spillages happen due to systems faults or design lacunae such as misalignment and improper angles of discharge and belt conveyors, use of locally available material like used truck tyre tread pieces joined together to form the belt conveyor, lack of provision of rubber skirting etc. The possible solution to overcome this problem could be to provide well designed layout, proper/standard belt conveyor material, rubber skirting on the side of the belts, proper alignment and angle of the crusher discharge chute and belt conveyor etc

The product spillages also occur due to holes formed in the discharge chute of crushers and screens at the point of free fall of stones as the steel plate gets punctured due to wear and tear and


eventually gives way for spillages. This could be minimized by adopting a step wise design of the chutes to reduce free fall height or by strengthening the steel at the point of impact. In the step design, a layer of stones always remains above the steps and the free fall impact is taken by these accumulated stones which saves the steel from direct wear and tear and increases its life.

c)        Enclosures for Belt Conveyor & Dust Hopper and Constraints Reported

Some crushers use Jute Cloth in place of GI steel sheets as material of construction for enclosures to reduce the cost. But wind current can pass through jute cloth enclosure thereby reducing the usefulness of the enclosure in terms of containment of dust. At times plastic/PVC sheets are used for enclosure especially for the belt conveyors and vibratory screens but it gets torned frequently due to high velocity wind currents and therefore not effective enclosures.

Many units provide an enclosed hopper for collection and storage of less than 6mm size dust product, but a large opening is kept at the point of discharge from

Review of Dust Suppression Arrangements


Most of the SCUs were found to have some water spray arrangement, though not satisfactory. The water is generally drawn from nearby bore-well and stored in a water tank. The water tank is generally located at an elevated level where raw material is unloaded. Water is supplied by gravity, through GI pipes, to various locations where dust is generated. Generally, simple holes are made in the pipes through which water is sprinkled. Some Crushers have installed “domestic showers” to get better spray. None of the unit was found to have filtering arrangements to clean the water. In such cases, in the absence of adequate pressure the spray formation is not appropriate and thereby to achieve the same effect as spray by nozzle more quantity of water is required to be sprayed, which again is unacceptable as it may increase moisture in the product excessively affecting quality adversely. Sprays are required to generate large number of fine water droplets which in turn come in contact with large number of fine dust particles, ideally each dust particle should get in contact with each water particle, only then the dust gets suppressed, otherwise suppression effect would only be partial.

a)      Typical arrangement adopted for Dust Suppression:

Following arrangements generally exist in stone crushers.

  • A bore well as source of water
  • A domestic water storage tank, placed at an elevated level.
  • GI pipes for water circulation by gravity
  • Generally holes are made in the pipes through which water get sprinkled on stone, some units have domestic showers for spraying.
  • Some units have additional arrangements such as Water Sprinklers around the plant, along with a pump and G.I. Pipeline network in and around the plant.

b)      Sprinkler Arrangement

Some stone crusher have installed water sprinklers all around the plant premises which spray water at a height of about 5-7 meters in 360 degrees periodically. Such system consumes a large quantity of water and if operated continuously it can create muddy conditions all over the plant due to accumulation of water in low lying areas. With regard to effectiveness of dust suppression, as discussed earlier the airborne dust emissions spread to a very large area as it raises and the sprinklers can spray water covering a small percentage of this area and therefore the airborne emissions hardly get suppressed by sprinklers. On the other hand the sprinklers wet the floor area as well as the stock piles and hauling roads and therefore help minimize only the secondary fugitive dust emissions but are ineffective in suppressing/controlling primary process dust emissions which are air borne.

Local Problems In Implementation Of Pollution Control Measures

Discussions were made with number of stone crusher owners to know and learn about the local problems faced by them in controlling dust emissions. A few of the reported problems are highlighted below.

  • High investment cost for providing dust containment like G.I. sheet enclosure for Vibratory Screen, Belt Conveyors etc for small size SCU’s, for Medium and Large size SCU’s it is not.
  • Huge quantity of water has been used for suppression of dust resulting in poor product quality forcing SCU to abandon it
  • Lack of appropriate nozzles for proper spray resulting in excess moisture added to the product and thereby increasing the water consumption
  • Lack of knowledge of pollution control measures by SCUs
  • Lack of availability of water for dust suppression forcing the SCU’s to purchase the same at higher cost
  • Financial constraints to implement the pollution control measures for small units



                     done BY TEAM POSEIDON


                                            Institute of Management in Kerala( IMK)


The history of the beaches of Sankarmangalam and nearby areas is inextricably intertwined with the history of the precious beaches and KMML. Precious, as was discovered in 1909 by the German scientist Dr. Schomberg who found traces of monazite in the sand flakes on the imported coir from Sankaramangalam. The beaches with a wealth of rare earth minerals became the centre of scientific attraction.

By 1932, a visionary private entrepreneur established the F. X. Perira and Sons (Travancore) Pvt. Ltd, the forerunner to KMML. During the course of time, KMML changed hands three times over. In 1956 it was taken over by the state government and was placed under the control of the industries department. The unit was subsequently converted as a limited company in 1972 by the name of ‘The Kerala Minerals and Metals Ltd.’


Bringing more to your everyday life, KMML touches you in numerous ways. Be it the dress you wear, the cosmetics you use, the medicines you take, the paints you decorate your home with or the utility plastic products, our products are there. Eco-friendly & socially committed, it is the only integrated Titanium Dioxide facility having mining, mineral separation, synthetic rutile and pigment-production plants. Apart from producing rutile grade Titanium Dioxide pigment for various types of industries, it also produces other products like Ilmenite, Rutile, Zircon, Sillimenite, Synthet rutile etc.

Manufacturing Titanium Dioxide through the chloride route, KMML produces very pure rutile grade Titanium dioxide pigment. The different grades churned out by KMML under brand name KEMOX has a ready market which asks for more. KMML has always been responsive to social and environmental causes. Some of the initiatives taken by KMML have made a significant change to the area and its people.

KMML effluents polluting water and land

Effluents from KMML (Kerala Metals and Minerals Ltd), a public sector unit based at Chavara in Kollam, are polluting water sources, degrading the environment, and posing a public health hazard.The plant manufacturing titanium dioxide was responsible for the deterioration in the quality of groundwater sources. Highly toxic trace elements were detected in water samples. the pollution had badly affected the flora and fauna in and around the factory area. Crops were found destroyed by concentrated hydrochloric acid and other pollutants present in the environment. the water quality of the underground aquifers had dropped to an alarming level due to high acidity. KMML, one of the few profit-making public sector units in Kerala, uses the chloride route technology to recover titanium dioxide from ilmenite ore, which is abundant along the Kerala coast. The factory claims that it has an elaborate pollution control system to treat the effluents before they are released into the water and air.

The factor  has seven tube wells with depth ranging from 100 m to 200 m. The average groundwater withdrawal through these tube wells was 10 lakh litre a day. Pointing out that groundwater extraction had reached alarming levels, the report warned that it could invite sea water intrusion into the aquifers. The waste water discharged by the company was found accumulating in the environment and polluting natural water bodies before reaching the sea. The area to the north of the factory was filled with pools of brownish yellow, pungent smelling water, highly acidic and reactive. The colour change was noticed in the wells and ponds also. Chemical analysis of surface and ground water samples collected from the study area identified trace elements of chromium, copper, lead, cobalt, cadmium, nickel, zinc, iron, and manganese. The report said the paddy fields in the area had become effluent ponds. Fish and other species had deserted the area and coconut trees were barren. Various skin diseases were noticed in adults and children residing in the region.

It is also noted that the water in and around the factory was of very poor quality. The pollution, initially confined to the neighbourhood of the factory, was slowly spreading towards the surrounding areas through the alluvial aquifers. Migration of the toxic elements could impact on the quality of water in the aquifers and endanger public health, it warned.

The company’s claim that the impact of its effluents was limited to less than 100 meters of the discharge point, after which the acidity was neutralised by the sea. We noticed  that about 15 area was badly affected and that the pollution was slowly spreading in all directions. Some remedial measures were called for to restore the water quality of the area. The company had to ensure that the acidic effluents were neutralised before discharge.

Water Pollution Control Measures adopted by KMML
Centralised Effluent Neutralisation Plant
The present system of wastewater treatment adopted by KMML is neutralisation of the wastewater with lime in the Centralised Effluent Neutralisation plant. The treated wastewater is then pumped to the settling ponds for solid settling. The supernatant overflowing to the polishing pond is pumped to the sea.The settling ponds were constructed as per the guidelines. The solid wastes generated from Centralised Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) and Acid Regeneration Plant (ARP) is presently being stored in these lined ponds.

There is a sophisticated instrumentation system for the continuous recording of the pH in the Secondary Neutralisation Tank of their ETP. The quality of the pH of the treated effluent is continuously monitored and controlled with the aid of this system. The pH of effluent in the polishing pond is checked daily and reported to the Pollution Control Board (PCB) every month.

Construction of new secured landfills
KMML is constructing two new secured landfills for storage of the Effluent Treatment Plant sludge and the iron oxide. The area of these ponds is 36,000 m2 each and they are being constructed as per the CPCB guidelines. The construction of these ponds are fast progressing.

Environmental Policy
To protect and safeguard the environment by:

  • Strictly complying with the statutory and regulatory requirements
  • Managing and continually improving processes, activities and products in view
  • To control their impact on land, air and water and thus prevent pollution
  • To control their impact on land, air and water and thus prevent pollution
  • To reduce health and safety risks
  • To optimise the use of resources


Modern mills

Modern mills typically use electricity or fossil fuels to spin heavy steel, or cast iron, serrated and flat rollers to separate the bran and germ from the endosperm. The endosperm is ground to create white flour, which may be recombined with the bran and germ to create whole grain or graham flour. The different milling techniques produce visibly different results, but can be made to produce nutritionally and functionally equivalent output. Stone-ground flour is, however, preferred by many bakers and natural food advocates because of its texture, nutty flavour, and the belief that it is nutritionally superior and has a better baking quality than steel-roller-milled flour. It is claimed that, as the stones grind relatively slowly, the wheat germ is not exposed to the sort of excessive temperatures that could cause the fat from the germ portion to oxidize and become rancid, which would destroy some of the vitamin content. Stone-milled flour has been found to be relatively high in thiamin, compared to roller-milled flour, especially when milled from hard wheat

Gristmills only grind “clean” grains from which stalks and chaff have previously been removed, but historically some mills also housed equipment for threshing, sorting, and cleaning prior to grinding.

Modern mills are usually “merchant mills” that are either privately owned and accept money or trade for milling grains or are owned by corporations that buy unmilled grain and then own the flour produced.


Established in 1992, “Sreeja flour mill” deals with wheat flour milling, rice milling and certain spice milling. Proprietor  is Sreedaran Nair he lives near by the mill. He has a single machine to grind rice and wheat and another one to grind spices. Sreeja flour mill is the only flour mill in the locality

For this report we are taking the case of wheat grinding in Sreeja flour mill.


Small Scale Flour Mill

The Sreeja flour mill comes under the category of Small Scale Flour Mills range from 10TPD to 30TPD.

Small scale, low investment mills have been welcomed by vast villages.

M6fty-10 series flour mill machinery all scale unit with low investment and high efficiency, but a complete set of equipment which can produce continuously.


M6FS-30/35/40 Flour Mill with Auto-feeding

The Process of Wheat Flour Milling

1. Wheat Cleaning:
The owner select and classify wheat granule to remove impurities which will damage the flour miling machine and affect the quality of flour. The process includes the following:
1. use wheat sieve to remove straw, broken husk, stone, hemp rope and other debris,
2. Sometime the owner wash wheat to clean the tuft and the attached impurities, especially the material in the abdominal ditch of wheat granule. If there is smut in wheat, need add lime to clean the wheat grain.

2  Grain Conditioning
In order to make the followed flour milling work more smoothly and improve the extraction rate, we need water and suit temperature well for flour grinding according to different types of wheat grain. Wheat granules are easy to be grinded. The malt become flat screened out easily. The way to water is that spray out water at several times. For the same purpose, we need to condition the wheat grain into suitable temperature. First heated wheat grain to 42 ~ 45 ℃, and then cool them to the temperature same as room. At last, clean wheat grain, get granule separated from the husk and sent to milling.

3. Flour Grinding Operations
After fine pick, the wheat grain can be made bran, endosperm and malt separated to grinding operation. Because the endosperm and bran combined very close, the separation of them should be careful to scrape clean and minimize the damage in avoid of wasteCoarse grinding is by using two serrated steel roller shafts rotating running in opposite direction at different speeds, with upper roller faster than downside roller 2.5 times. Split the scarfskin of wheat gently and get out of coarse granule and bran in flat and big flaky shape. Through purification and keep the pure endosperm granule by fine separator according to different proportions. The light bran will float with injected wind power, the remaining heavier endosperm powder go to the reduction stage. After crush the endosperm by smooth roller flour mill., ground into powder. The crushed flat malt get out after germ separator (The process is what stone grinder can not work). Fine powder can be classified into different grade of flour by multi-storey rotary plan sifter. The coarse granule sent to grind again (or use as bran). The fine particles can be cheap flour. The coarse debris sent to further processing to remove malt and fine debris, the fine debris can be fine ground into top quality flour.

Is flour mill pollution free industry?

No, flour mills cause substantial damage to the surrounding area. For example, in the place where Sreeja flour mills situated was founded and powered by the water source there was significantly damaged. The river was transformed to the waste disposal unit of the mill. In addition,

  1. The flour mills dumped much of their waste products such as the explosive flour dust into the river which, when mixed with the water would create a paste like substance. This waste piled up and killed many of the ecosystems in the river, including many species of fish. It also created a disgusting smell that was unpleasant to residents living south of the river.
  2. The working of the grinding machine makes lot of noise.
  3.  The grinding machine is heavy energy busters. They consume a lot of electricity and there is a huge loss in energy due to heat production while they are working.
  4.  Mixing up off different types of grains in single machine results a mix quality of wheat flour.
  5. The flour which is wasted, sometime create allergic problems.


Kitchen-Scale Flour Milling

If yours is a simple flour milling business, you can mill flour that comes to you. Manual and electric grain mills for use in the kitchen, which can also be used as flour mill. Two of the features that affect prices are the material of the mill, the noise level and their adjustability. Those made of stainless steel, operate with low noise level, have lower heat production, generate less dust in the air, and can be adjusted for fine or coarser output cost more. Metal and plastic materials are preferred over wood. The recommended milling rate is40 lbs. of fine flour per hour.

Flour Milling Business Requirements

Before starting flour milling business check the regulation of your town or state to determine what permit and certificates you need to secure. Of concern in this process is the dust particle generated from the milling and the risk of an explosion caused by the suspension of flour dust in the air. For smaller quantities, this is not a concern, but for larger volumes, care should be taken to prevent this from happening.

Assignment #3 submitted by team falcon

Rahesh R

Ganesh R Chandran

Jubi MF

Amal S

IMK Senate House Campus, Palayam

As part of a university volunteering programme a few batch mates of us were to serve in the accomodation committee in a National Seminar programme Organised  by the University of Kerala. As we are preoccupied with the duty of assignments we spoke with the proprietor of the hotel which we were assigned Hotel Hawa Mahal. His name was Ravi.

The story was  quite a fairy tale. The Hawamahal Restaraunt which started at humble circumstances now resembles a multi storey posh flat.  As our perspective is with Environmental Management we concentrate on those particular aspects of the case.

As their private property the HawaMahal has  an ‘are’ of  unused land in their back yard. They landfill all the inorganic(mostly plastic waste there). As far as the organic waste is concerned, they simple dump it in  a corner. As no nearby  homes or residential plots are in the area although the proposition seems to be a foul one , it can be termed as a most convenient option of them as no additional costs are incurred. Being it in their own private property and as no person is their to complain about it and situation is all set for a smooth run as long as no newcomer likely to be affected adversely by this.

But we as Environmental Management Students analysed the situation promptly and we were not able to settle the issue that easy. UIt is not that it is not causing any problem to the byestanders which bothers us . It is the sheer lack of commitment for an environmental cause which worried us. But as they became more knowledgeable about the problems especially associated with landfills they were a bit concerned.

We suggested a model for their effective waste disposal. We suggested as there is huge amounts of organic waste generated as part of their business related cooking activities, there is ample scope of getting it converted into a source of fuel which at the same time will be beneficial to them economically as well as serving a share of their own environmental commitment. We told them after inquiring with the concerned authorities that Bio gas Plant with 50% discount is available at Rs. 7100 and with 33% discount at Rs. 10500 for higher fuel output. When they were aware of the economic benefits they were seen interested in giving it a try. We have told the about the support rendered at the panchayat level for such schemes and the future bright possibilities it can offer.    But inorganic waste still looms as a problem and we were not able to convince them effectively about the demerits.

There lies many issues. Unless a massive change is not initiated such a motion won’t get a required impetus. Awareness is the only way as of now to solve the problem of inorganic waste. Unless a technology which couldprofitable to convert back inorganic waste to some recyclable form is implemented , no such motion is going to gain any impetus. But to educate the public to raise the awareness to a pragmatic level is a distant possibility now. And we have to stick to strictly organic.